Among historians, Latin American independence has been and continues to be a thoroughly researched field. Beginning with the personal accounts of participants in the wars of independence published in the first half of the nineteenth century, decade after decade historians have produced a steady stream of scholarship on the events which gave birth to the multiple nations of the Americas.
Mexico is a country with a rich constitutional history. The first constitution enacted in Mexican territory -when it was still called New Spain- was the 1812 Spanish Constitution. In 1814, insurgent rebels published their own rival constitution in Apatzingán (in the present day state of Michoacán). Once Mexico achieved independence in 1821, political debate assumed that the first challenge for the new nation was the drawing up of constitution.
Depois de duas décadas de atuação de uma missão francesa no exército brasileiro, nos anos 1940 o Brasil empreendeu um segundo ciclo de modernização militar, agora junto aos Estados Unidos. Os laços estabelecidos entre os exércitos dos dois países atendiam às demandas de Washington de projetar a sua influência sobre todo o continente, erguendo um sistema defensivo primeiro contra o nazismo e o fascismo e, depois, contra o comunismo.
The Bogotá River is a major source of water for Colombians in the province of Cundinamarca, which surrounds the country’s capital. It flows from the northeastern border of the area, skirts around Bogotá, and drops 515 feet at the magnificent Tequendama Falls. The Bogotá ends in southwest Cundinamarca, where it drains into the Magdalena River. Unfortunately, the Tequendama Falls have been known as “the largest wastewater falls in the world,” according to Canada’s International Development Research Center.
En los últimos años el mundo globalizado vive una gran paradoja: fronteras cada vez más débiles para favorecer el intercambio comercial pero en las que se construyen todo tipo de cierres para evitar la permeabilidad de los límites físicos a la movilidad humana.
Every day, millions of people in the Andes use coca like people in North America use coffee; they brew the leaves in hot water to make tea; some chew on the leaves to reenergize at work. For centuries, Andean populations have cherished the health and spiritual benefits of coca. In both uses, coca acts as a mild stimulant––like coffee––that can also suppress hunger, thirst, pain, and fatigue, and even relieve symptoms of altitude sickness.